In writing dissertations, research proposals, research papers, and any other assignments, students at all levels are mostly required to have the work formatted using various referencing and citation styles. The main referencing styles include APA, MLA, Chicago/ Turabian, and Harvard among other common and contemporary styles as specified on the instructions. Universally, most of these papers have similar requirements particularly in regards to formatting of the paper and use of citations and abbreviations. The single universal basic requirement in these styles is that every paper needs to be in Times New Roman font, font size 12, and double spaced. In addition, the reference page (as much as it may have different headings such as ‘Works Cited in MLA) also follows the universal rule of alphabetical order in listing the references.
In American Psychology Association (APA) referencing style, in-text citations at the end or beginning of a sentence involve the reference used cited with the author name and year. The formatting of the citations differs depending on where it is or the number of authors but the author(s) name and year of publication are fundamental. In Modern Language Association (MLA) style, in-text citations for MLA style involve the author(s) name(s) and the page number, line, minute (as in a television transcript) or anything else denoting the exact place from where the information has been taken from in the paragraph as cited. As for Harvard style, the author and year of publication are required just like in APA. However, for Chicago, the author uses footnotes that are found at the end of the page were the reference has been inserted.
The rule of a different cover page
and reference page as well as and formatting rules for these such as running
head on cover age and alphabetical order in listing references applies in PA,
Harvard, and Chicago styles. As for MLA, there is no cover page but there is a
separate reference (Works Cited) page also listed alphabetically.